The role of colonial policies in Herat (1800-1857 AD)
Herat province in western Afghanistan today had a very strategic position in the region in the nineteenth century. The reason was the expansion of colonial rivalries and the formation of a great game between the two great colonial powers of the time (the Empire of Great Britain and Tsarist Russia) in South and Central Asia. The main question of the present article is what factors made Herat a strategic position in this century? The most important hypothesis that can be made in this regard is that Herat, as the gateway to India, was willingly or unwillingly caught in the circle of Russian and British colonial policies and became extremely important in the political and military relations of the region. This article tries to address this issue using various sources and references as well as descriptive and analytical methods. A study of documents and sources shows that the Russians, in order to gain access to the high seas, and the British, in order to preserve their large colony of India, tried to use Herat as a major capital to achieve their goals. These goals marked a series of developments in Herat and the region, some of which are mentioned in this article.